The European hygiene rule defined in the paper 94/356/EG demands for an HACCP-concept which can be integrated in a quality management system
This HACCP concept has to be developed for all products of every factory. The five basic ideas of HACCP-concept are:
- Make a hazard analysis
- Determine the critical points (CPs) which might be of hazard in the production of the food.
- Determine the CPs which may be CCPs being of high importance to the safety of the food and which may be controlled safely using simple checks named “Controlling”.
For the controlling define the specifications of the product.
- Define a control system of the critical points, using tests which can be carried out during production in order to interfere in case of wrong production. “Monitoring”.
Introduce a documentation in order to record every happening.
Define the corrections to be made in case of critical point being out of control.
- Define the way of verification to confirm that the HACCP-system works.”Verification”
The main concern is to avoid contaminations originated from:
- Biological factors : Bacteria, such as Salmonella, pathogen Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum,
- viral infections or BSE.
The biological factors can be avoided through cleaning and disinfection activities.
They must be supervised by a controlling person making periodic surface contact cultures and cultures from different points of the production line.
Bioluminescence ATP tests are also performed with good results.
On market there are test stripes which indicate after some minutes the presence of proteins signalizing bad cleaning.
- Introduce a documentation in order to record every happening.
- The Hygiene rule 93/43/EWG demands also for a hygiene training of the staff.
- Chemical factors: Residues of cleaning agents, insecticides and other chemicals. Very important is to make sure that all residues of cleaning and disinfection agents are eliminated before product processing starts. This is done with rinsing with clean drinking water. There should be a daily cleaning and disinfection plan.
- Physical factors: Splinters of metal, glass, bones, wood, stones and other materials.
System to avoid the risk of physical factors are filters, X-ray scanners and metal detectors are widely used. Other materials can hardly be detected. So every effort should be undertaken to avoid splinters of glass, wood and plastics into the food. The bottles should be turned overhead and blown out with a flush of compressed air before filling. All the way to the filling should be covered, so splinters cannot get into the glass. Start a “Glass damage book” where damage of Glass is registered telling the name of the product, the filling machine, the name of the operator, date and the time of damage.